Types of Ammonium Molybdate

Ammonium molybdate is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2MoO4. It is commonly encountered in two different forms:

1. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate ((NH4)2MoO4 · 4H2O): This is the most common form of ammonium molybdate. It is a white crystalline solid that contains four water molecules per formula unit. It is often used as a source of molybdenum in various applications, such as analytical chemistry, fertilizers, and catalysts.

2. Ammonium molybdate dihydrate ((NH4)2MoO4 · 2H2O): This form of ammonium molybdate is similar to the tetrahydrate but contains two water molecules per formula unit. It is also a white crystalline solid and finds applications in similar fields as the tetrahydrate.

Both forms of ammonium molybdate are widely used in laboratories and industries for their molybdenum content, which is an important element in various chemical processes and applications.

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Ammonium Metavanadate Catalyst

Ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) is an inorganic compound that can act as an environmental catalyst in various applications. It contains the vanadium(V) cation, which is a redox-active element with multiple oxidation states, allowing it to participate in catalytic reactions.

Here are a few ways in which ammonium metavanadate can function as an environmental catalyst:

1. Air Pollution Control: Ammonium metavanadate can be used as a catalyst in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to mitigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from industrial processes and power plants. In SCR, ammonia (NH3) is used as a reducing agent to convert harmful NOx into nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) through a reaction facilitated by the catalyst.

2. Organic Synthesis: Ammonium metavanadate can serve as a catalyst in various organic synthesis reactions. For instance, it can be used in the oxidative bromination of organic compounds, where it facilitates the introduction of bromine atoms into specific positions of a molecule. It can also catalyze oxidation reactions, such as the conversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones.

3. Water Treatment: Ammonium metavanadate has been investigated for its potential in water treatment applications. It can act as a catalyst in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to degrade organic pollutants in water. AOPs typically involve the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which can break down organic contaminants into simpler, less harmful compounds. Ammonium metavanadate can participate in these reactions and enhance the degradation efficiency.

4. Fuel Cells: Vanadium-based compounds, including ammonium metavanadate, have been explored as catalysts in fuel cells. Fuel cells generate electricity through electrochemical reactions, and catalysts are essential to facilitate these reactions. Ammonium metavanadate can be utilized as a catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) that occurs at the cathode of fuel cells, improving their efficiency and performance.

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Ammonium Heptamolybdate Solubility

Ammonium heptamolybdate, also known as ammonium molybdate(VI), is a commonly used compound in analytical chemistry and industrial applications. It is primarily used as a reagent for the determination of phosphate, arsenate, and silicate in various samples. The solubility of ammonium heptamolybdate in water is moderate.

At room temperature (around 25 degrees Celsius or 77 degrees Fahrenheit), the solubility of ammonium heptamolybdate is approximately 80 grams per 100 milliliters of water. It means that 80 grams of ammonium heptamolybdate can dissolve in 100 milliliters of water at this temperature. However, it’s important to note that the solubility may vary slightly depending on the purity of the compound and the specific conditions.

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Uses of Ammonium Dimolybdate

Ammonium dimolybdate, also known as ammonium molybdate, is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2Mo2O7. It is composed of ammonium cations (NH4+) and dimolybdate anions (Mo2O7^2-). Ammonium dimolybdate has several uses in various fields:

1. Catalyst: Ammonium dimolybdate is used as a catalyst in various chemical reactions, particularly in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. It is commonly employed in processes such as desulfurization, oxidation, and hydrodesulfurization.

2. Fertilizers: Ammonium dimolybdate is used as a source of molybdenum in fertilizers. Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient for plants, and its deficiency can adversely affect crop growth and development. Adding ammonium dimolybdate to the soil helps provide plants with the required molybdenum.

3. Pigments: Ammonium dimolybdate is used in the production of pigments, specifically yellow and orange pigments. These pigments find applications in various industries, including paints, ceramics, plastics, and textiles.

4. Corrosion inhibitors: Ammonium dimolybdate is utilized as a corrosion inhibitor in various systems, such as cooling water treatment, metal surface coatings, and oil and gas pipelines. It helps to prevent or slow down the corrosion process by forming a protective film on the metal surface.

5. Analytical chemistry: Ammonium dimolybdate is used as a reagent in analytical chemistry, particularly for the determination of phosphates and silicates. It forms complexes with these analytes, allowing their quantification through colorimetric or spectrophotometric methods.

6. Electroplating: Ammonium dimolybdate is sometimes used in the electroplating industry for molybdenum plating. This process can enhance the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of metal surfaces.

7. Research and development: Ammonium dimolybdate is employed in various research and development activities, such as the synthesis of other molybdenum compounds, the preparation of catalysts, and the investigation of new chemical reactions and processes.

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Chinese Ferrovanadium Market

China is one of the largest producers and consumers of ferrovanadium in the world. Ferrovanadium is an alloy composed of iron and vanadium, primarily used as an additive in the production of steel. The demand for ferrovanadium is closely tied to the steel industry, as it helps improve the strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance of steel.
China’s ferrovanadium market is influenced by several factors, including domestic steel production, infrastructure development, global steel demand, and international trade policies. The country’s steel industry has experienced significant growth over the years, driven by urbanization, industrialization, and construction activities. As a result, the demand for ferrovanadium has also increased.
China has both domestic ferrovanadium producers and imports the alloy from other countries. The Chinese government has implemented various policies to support the domestic production of vanadium and reduce dependence on imports. These policies include export quotas, environmental regulations, and restrictions on vanadium mining.
The prices of ferrovanadium in China are subject to market dynamics and can be influenced by global supply and demand factors, as well as fluctuations in raw material costs. Additionally, changes in trade policies and currency exchange rates can impact the import and export of ferrovanadium, affecting the overall market.
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The function and use of molybdenum disulfide grease

Molybdenum Disulfide grease is a solid, semi-fluid, fluid ester containing disulfide, suitable for textile, printing and dyeing, metallurgy, mining, etc. Molybdenum disulfide as a lubricant not only has a great role in industry, for all walks of life have a great role.

Molybdenum disulfide grease is mainly used to lubricate friction parts of machinery, such as bearings, gears, chains, transmission systems, etc., can provide long-term wear and rust protection. Molybdenum Disulfide grease is a solid, semi-fluid, fluid ester containing disulfide, suitable for textile, printing and dyeing, metallurgy, mining and other industries.

Introduction to the performance characteristics of molybdenum disulfide grease: lithium molybdenum disulfide grease resistance to extreme pressure and load are good, the appearance of gray to black gray uniform paste, with good lubricity, mechanical safety, water resistance and oxidation stability. Common molybdenum lithium disulfide grease is suitable for the working temperature in the range of -20℃ ~ 120℃ mining machinery, metallurgical machinery and equipment, mechanical and electrical equipment, transportation and other high temperature, heavy load of various large machinery and equipment lubrication. Molybdenum disulfide grease is made from PAO with low viscosity. Good anti-wear extreme pressure performance, can carry heavy load, so can reduce internal parts due to high pressure and impact load caused by various wear. Good noise reduction, sound cancellation, shock absorption, does not contain any harmful substances, to ensure the safety of the production environment. Excellent corrosion resistance and rust resistance, can avoid parts and air, water direct contact, prevent corrosion, rust.

The function of molybdenum disulfide, effectively improve the service life of products, good thermal stability, oxidation resistance, low evaporation during use, no loss, suitable for long-term lubrication. Strong adhesion, attached to the surface of the parts, to prevent detachment due to speed and vibration conditions. Compatible with most media, such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc., and good low temperature performance, starting torque and running torque is small, the applicable temperature is -40℃-180℃.

Molybdenum disulfide grease is mainly used to lubricate friction parts of machinery, such as bearings, gears, chains, transmission systems, etc., can provide long-term wear and rust protection.

However, the general molybdenum disulfide lubricant is not suitable for automobiles, generally used in heavy load and impact load rolling bearings, especially in slow or vibration motion parts, such as universal joints. If this grease is used on bearings running at high speed, there will be a “sliding” problem. Because the grease containing molybdenum will reduce the friction coefficient, the ball can not realize the full 360 degree rotation due to the reduction of friction, resulting in grinding spots, resulting in the lubrication failure of the rolling bearing, reducing the service life of the bearing. Therefore, the grease containing molybdenum disulfide can not be used for lubrication of vehicle hub bearings.

But it also has obvious disadvantages. First molybdenum dioxide is not suitable for high speed, light load, low temperature. The operating temperature shall not exceed 190 degrees. And molybdenum dioxide belongs to color pollution, safety and environmental protection is not enough. Strong attachment to black, not suitable for some of the color requirements of the industry, such as textile light industry.

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