The function and use of molybdenum disulfide grease
Molybdenum Disulfide grease is a solid, semi-fluid, fluid ester containing disulfide, suitable for textile, printing and dyeing, metallurgy, mining, etc. Molybdenum disulfide as a lubricant not only has a great role in industry, for all walks of life have a great role.
Molybdenum disulfide grease is mainly used to lubricate friction parts of machinery, such as bearings, gears, chains, transmission systems, etc., can provide long-term wear and rust protection. Molybdenum DISulfide grease is a solid, semi-fluid, fluid ester containing disulfide, suitable for textile, printing and dyeing, metallurgy, mining and other industries.
Introduction to the performance characteristics of molybdenum disulfide grease: lithium molybdenum disulfide grease resistance to extreme pressure and load are good, the appearance of gray to black gray uniform paste, with good lubricity, mechanical safety, water resistance and oxidation stability. Common molybdenum lithium disulfide grease is suitable for the working temperature in the range of -20℃ ~ 120℃ mining machinery, metallurgical machinery and equipment, mechanical and electrical equipment, transportation and other high temperature, heavy load of various large machinery and equipment lubrication. Molybdenum disulfide grease is made from PAO with low viscosity. Good anti-wear extreme pressure performance, can carry heavy load, so can reduce internal parts due to high pressure and impact load caused by various wear. Good noise reduction, sound cancellation, shock absorption, does not contain any harmful substances, to ensure the safety of the production environment. Excellent corrosion resistance and rust resistance, can avoid parts and air, water direct contact, prevent corrosion, rust.
The function of molybdenum disulfide, effectively improve the service life of products, good thermal stability, oxidation resistance, low evaporation during use, no loss, suitable for long-term lubrication. Strong adhesion, attached to the surface of the parts, to prevent detachment due to speed and vibration conditions. Compatible with most media, such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc., and good low temperature performance, starting torque and running torque is small, the applicable temperature is -40℃-180℃.
Molybdenum disulfide grease is mainly used to lubricate friction parts of machinery, such as bearings, gears, chains, transmission systems, etc., can provide long-term wear and rust protection.
However, the general molybdenum disulfide lubricant is not suitable for automobiles, generally used in heavy load and impact load rolling bearings, especially in slow or vibration motion parts, such as universal joints. If this grease is used on bearings running at high speed, there will be a “sliding” problem. Because the grease containing molybdenum will reduce the friction coefficient, the ball can not realize the full 360 degree rotation due to the reduction of friction, resulting in grinding spots, resulting in the lubrication failure of the rolling bearing, reducing the service life of the bearing. Therefore, the grease containing molybdenum disulfide can not be used for lubrication of vehicle hub bearings.
But it also has obvious disadvantages. First molybdenum dioxide is not suitable for high speed, light load, low temperature. The operating temperature shall not exceed 190 degrees. And molybdenum dioxide belongs to color pollution, safety and environmental protection is not enough. Strong attachment to black, not suitable for some of the color requirements of the industry, such as textile light industry.
Application of sodium molybdate
Molybdenum is an essential trace element for human body, animals and plants. Silver-white metal, hard and tough. The appearance of sodium molybdate is white diamond crystal. Also known as sodium molybdate dihydrate or disodium molybdate. The chemical formula of sodium molybdate is Na2MoO4·2H2O. Sodium molybdate is stable and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Dissolved in 1.7 parts of water and about 0.9 parts of boiling water and 5% aqueous solution, the pH is 9.0 to 5.0 at 25°C. Relative density (d184) 3.28, melting point 687°C. And it’s poisonous and has a strong smell. Slightly soluble in water, insoluble in acetone. When heated to 100 ℃, it loses crystal water and becomes anhydrous.
Molybdenum is a precious and rare metal with high melting point and an important strategic material. It produces important alloying elements such as alloy steel, stainless steel, heat-resistant steel and alloy cast iron. Molybdenum and its alloys have good thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient, High temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, good chemical stability and other characteristics. Iron and steel industry, metal processing industry, metallurgical industry, building material industry, electric light, unknown industry, chemical industry, textile industry, machinery industry and agriculture all have a very large demand for molybdenum.
Sodium molybdate has a wide range of applications in modern society.
- In the application of corrosion inhibitors. Since molybdenum is a corrosion-resistant metal, its compound, sodium molybdate, is generally harmless to the human body. Therefore, using sodium molybdate as a corrosion inhibitor to replace toxic and even carcinogenic nitrite and chromate has become a popular choice for environmental substances. The use of sodium molybdate can reduce the loss of metal corrosion. In addition, sodium molybdate inhibitors have further applications in sectors such as engine coolants, industrial cooling water, pigment coatings, concrete, water, fluids and metalworking fluids.
- In the application of cleaning agents. Since molybdenum is not only harmless to the human body, but also an essential metal element for the human body, sodium molybdate is also widely used in cleaning agents. The washing index of the cleaning solution containing sodium molybdate and the cleaning solution without sodium molybdate can be increased by 6 percentage points. In addition, sodium molybdate also has a good application in tea stain remover and pipe wall cleaner.
- In the application of lubricants. The addition of fat due to sodium molybdate can improve the mechanical properties of rust. Therefore, sodium molybdate is added to lubricants such as molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphate, molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate, molybdenum diaryldithiophosphate, and molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphate.
- Sodium molybdate is used to manufacture alkaloids and other substances, as well as dyes, molybdenum red pigments, catalysts, molybdenum salts and fast lake precipitants. It is a raw material for flame retardant materials, a metal corrosion inhibitor for an environmentally friendly cooling water system, and a trace element for animals and plants.
The major use of vanadium pentoxide
Vanadium Pentoxide Flake vs Vanadium Pentoxide Powder
The major use of vanadium pentoxide is in the production of metal alloys. Iron–vanadium and aluminium–vanadium master alloys (e.g. for automotive steels, jet engines and airframes) are produced preferably from vanadium pentoxide fused flakes because of the low loss on ignition, low sulfur and dust contents, and high density of the molten oxide compared with vanadium pentoxide powder.
Vanadium pentoxide catalyst
Vanadium pentoxide is also used as an oxidation catalyst, in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic processes for the production of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide, phthalic anhydride from naphthalene or ortho-xylene, maleic anhydride from benzene or n-butane/ butene, adipic acid from cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone, acrylic acid from propane and acetaldehyde from alcohol. Minor amounts are used in the production of oxalic acid from cellulose and of anthraquinone from anthracene. Vanadium pentoxide has not found any significant uses in microelectronics but does have some applications in cathodes in primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries and in red phosphors for high-pressure mercury lamps and television screens. Vanadium pentoxide is used in the industries of enamelling, electrics and electronics, metallurgy, glass, catalysts, petro chemistry, and paint and ceramics.
Vanadium Pentoxide Used As Corrosion Inhibitor
I t is also used as a corrosion inhibitor in industrial processes for the produc- tion of hydrogen from hydrocarbons, as a coating for welding electrodes, as ultraviolet absorbent in glass, as depolariser, for glazes, for yellow and blue pigments, as a photo- graphic developer, and in colloidal solution for anti-static layers on photographic material. It is also used as starting material for the production of carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, silicides, halides, vanadates and vanadium salts.
Sodium molybdate: Nutrient supplement
Sodium molybdate is synthesized by dissolving molybdenum oxide in sodium hydroxide. It is available in the capsule form, usually combined with other nutrients. Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral that is present in very small amounts in the body. It is involved in many important biological processes, possibly including development of the nervous system, waste processing in the kidneys, energy production in cells, and the chemical reactions that form bone, cartilage and blood. Molybdenum deficiencies are very rare among humans deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor causes severe disease in humans that usually results in premature death in early childhood, and it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Overdoses are extremely rare. Large amounts of molybdenum produce symptoms of copper deficiency in cattle, and taking too much supplemental molybdenum could produce the same symptoms in humans. Symptoms of excess molybdenum supplement include tiredness, dizziness, rashes, low white blood cell counts, depressed growth rate and anaemia. High molybdenum levels are also linked to gout. It is not carcinogenic or mutagenic. Inhalation of molybdenum dust can irritate the nose and throat and may cause coughing and wheezing.Prolonged exposure to high concentration of molybdenum will cause weakness, fatigue, headache, poor appetite, and muscle and joint pain. The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board established the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of molybdenum for most adults at 45 µg, with an RDA of 50 µg for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Chemical raw material prices going up
Because of the rising costs of energy and raw materials, titanium dioxide, paper manufacturers are brewing a new round of paper price increases, which makes the printing business very alarmed. BarryPearson, managing director of a Doncaster-based UK professional business printing company, said: “I heard the paper price is rising, it is frustrating.” “We have a lot of work doing with paper, therefore paper consists most of the cost of production, further price increases means smaller profit margins.” He said that in order to reduce the cost of paper, he had consulted the Chinese container through the purchase of paper, but was adminrmed, 39.1% of the price was to be levied for anti-dumping duties. “This basically means that there is almost no other way to fight rising price of paper. I think we can only wait for some European manufacturers to control the price.” Sappi Paper Europe coated fine paper prices will increase at least 8%, the policy will be put into effect among buyers without previous commercial contract from March 1 and among those with from April 1. It will also increase in March the non-coating fine paper prices by 5-8%. Sappi spokesman explained: “Sappi needs to raise the price of paper to deal with rising input costs.” “Because of the new prices, particularly energy, timber and pulp, we are also confronted with declining profit margins.” In March 14th,M-real will increase their non-coating fine paper prices by 6-8%. SimonGuffogg, director of marketing for M-real’s business added: “We must do something now, we have no other choice than trying to make up the costs of production. It is associated with the profit, the situation is very serious.” Lauri Peltola, Stora Enso’s public relations manager, said the company is discussing on this matter. UPM paper mills declined to comment.