The major use of vanadium pentoxide

Vanadium Pentoxide Flake vs Vanadium Pentoxide Powder

The major use of vanadium pentoxide is in the production of metal alloys. Iron–vanadium and aluminium–vanadium master alloys (e.g. for automotive steels, jet engines and airframes) are produced preferably from vanadium pentoxide fused flakes because of the low loss on ignition, low sulfur and dust contents, and high density of the molten oxide compared with vanadium pentoxide powder.
Vanadium pentoxide catalyst

Vanadium pentoxide is also used as an oxidation catalyst, in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic processes for the production of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide, phthalic anhydride from naphthalene or ortho-xylene, maleic anhydride from benzene or n-butane/ butene, adipic acid from cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone, acrylic acid from propane and acetaldehyde from alcohol. Minor amounts are used in the production of oxalic acid from cellulose and of anthraquinone from anthracene. Vanadium pentoxide has not found any significant uses in microelectronics but does have some applications in cathodes in primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries and in red phosphors for high-pressure mercury lamps and television screens. Vanadium pentoxide is used in the industries of enamelling, electrics and electronics, metallurgy, glass, catalysts, petro chemistry, and paint and ceramics.
Vanadium Pentoxide Used As Corrosion Inhibitor

I t is also used as a corrosion inhibitor in industrial processes for the produc- tion of hydrogen from hydrocarbons, as a coating for welding electrodes, as ultraviolet absorbent in glass, as depolariser, for glazes, for yellow and blue pigments, as a photo- graphic developer, and in colloidal solution for anti-static layers on photographic material. It is also used as starting material for the production of carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, silicides, halides, vanadates and vanadium salts.

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Sodium molybdate: Nutrient supplement

Sodium molybdate is synthesized by dissolving molybdenum oxide in sodium hydroxide. It is available in the capsule form, usually combined with other nutrients. Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral that is present in very small amounts in the body. It is involved in many important biological processes, possibly including development of the nervous system, waste processing in the kidneys, energy production in cells, and the chemical reactions that form bone, cartilage and blood. Molybdenum deficiencies are very rare among humans deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor causes severe disease in humans that usually results in premature death in early childhood, and it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Overdoses are extremely rare. Large amounts of molybdenum produce symptoms of copper deficiency in cattle, and taking too much supplemental molybdenum could produce the same symptoms in humans. Symptoms of excess molybdenum supplement include tiredness, dizziness, rashes, low white blood cell counts, depressed growth rate and anaemia. High molybdenum levels are also linked to gout. It is not carcinogenic or mutagenic. Inhalation of molybdenum dust can irritate the nose and throat and may cause coughing and wheezing.Prolonged exposure to high concentration of molybdenum will cause weakness, fatigue, headache, poor appetite, and muscle and joint pain. The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board established the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of molybdenum for most adults at 45 µg, with an RDA of 50 µg for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

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Chemical raw material prices going up

Because of the rising costs of energy and raw materials, titanium dioxide, paper manufacturers are brewing a new round of paper price increases, which makes the printing business very alarmed. BarryPearson, managing director of a Doncaster-based UK professional business printing company, said: “I heard the paper price is rising, it is frustrating.” “We have a lot of work doing with paper, therefore paper consists most of the cost of production, further price increases means smaller profit margins.” He said that in order to reduce the cost of paper, he had consulted the Chinese container through the purchase of paper, but was adminrmed, 39.1% of the price was to be levied for anti-dumping duties. “This basically means that there is almost no other way to fight rising price of paper. I think we can only wait for some European manufacturers to control the price.” Sappi Paper Europe coated fine paper prices will increase at least 8%, the policy will be put into effect among buyers without previous commercial contract from March 1 and among those with from April 1. It will also increase in March the non-coating fine paper prices by 5-8%. Sappi spokesman explained: “Sappi needs to raise the price of paper to deal with rising input costs.” “Because of the new prices, particularly energy, timber and pulp, we are also confronted with declining profit margins.” In March 14th,M-real will increase their non-coating fine paper prices by 6-8%. SimonGuffogg, director of marketing for M-real’s business added: “We must do something now, we have no other choice than trying to make up the costs of production. It is associated with the profit, the situation is very serious.” Lauri Peltola, Stora Enso’s public relations manager, said the company is discussing on this matter. UPM paper mills declined to comment.

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