Chemical Reactions MoO2


Figure 4. schematic representation of MoO2 chemical reactions

Reduction to Metallic Molybdenum

One important reaction of molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) is its reduction to metallic molybdenum. This reduction can be achieved by exposing MoO2 to reducing agents like hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures, typically around 400-800°C[1, 2]. The overall reaction can be represented as:

MoO2 + 2H2 → Mo + 2H2O

The reduction process involves the removal of oxygen atoms from the MoO2 lattice, leading to the formation of pure molybdenum metal. By controlling the reduction temperature, hydrogen flow rate, and reaction time, it is possible to tune the particle size and morphology of the resulting molybdenum[1]. The metallic molybdenum obtained from this reduction has catalytic properties and finds applications in various industrial processes, such as the synthesis of ammonia[1].

Oxidation to Molybdenum Trioxide

Molybdenum dioxide can also undergo oxidation reactions, particularly when exposed to oxidizing environments at high temperatures. One such reaction is the oxidation of MoO2 to molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) in the presence of air or oxygen[3, 4]:

2MoO2 + O2 → 2MoO3

This oxidation reaction is relevant in high-temperature applications where the stability of MoO2-based materials is crucial. The formation of MoO3 can lead to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the material, such as its electrical conductivity and catalytic activity[3, 4].

Electrochemical Reduction of CO2

Molybdenum dioxide has shown promise as an electrocatalyst for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2). When MoO2 films are deposited on conductive substrates and used as electrodes, they exhibit catalytic activity towards the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to valuable products like formate[5, 6]. The proposed reaction mechanism involves the adsorption of CO2 on the MoO2 surface, followed by electron transfer and proton-coupled reactions[5, 6].

The ability of MoO2 to catalyze CO2 reduction is attributed to its unique electronic structure and the presence of active sites on its surface[5]. This reaction holds great potential for the sustainable conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals and fuels, contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions[6].

Formation of Mixed-Oxide Systems

Molybdenum dioxide can interact with other metal oxides to form mixed-oxide systems with interesting properties. For example, MoO2-Fe2O3 (molybdenum dioxide-hematite) nanoparticle systems have been synthesized through mechanochemical activation[7, 8]. These mixed-oxide systems exhibit unique magnetic properties, such as unidirectional magnetic anisotropy, which can be exploited in various applications[7, 8].

The formation of mixed-oxide systems involving MoO2 can lead to synergistic effects and enhanced properties compared to the individual components. The interaction between MoO2 and other metal oxides can modify the electronic structure, surface chemistry, and catalytic activity of the resulting material[7, 8].


  1. Zoller, M., M. O’Sullivan, and H. Huppertz, On the Reduction of MoO(3) to MoO(2) : A Path to Control the Particle Size and Morphology.Chemistry, 2021. 27(72): p. 18141-18149.
  2. Gadiyar, H.S. and J. Balachandra, VAPOUR PHASE DEPOSITION OF MOLYBDENUM ON URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES USING FLUIDIZED BED TECHNIQUE.Transactions of The Indian Institute of Metals, 1962.
  3. Manea, A. and A.V. Moholkara. Palladium (Pd) sensitized molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) nanobelts for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas detection. 2021.
  4. Zhang, C., et al., Atomic Layers of MoO(2) with Exposed High-Energy (010) Facets for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.Small, 2018. 14(13): p. e1703960.
  5. Asadi, M., et al., Robust carbon dioxide reduction on molybdenum disulphide edges.Nat Commun, 2014. 5: p. 4470.
  6. Maia, L.B., et al., Reduction of Carbon Dioxide by a Molybdenum-Containing Formate Dehydrogenase: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study.J Am Chem Soc, 2016. 138(28): p. 8834-46.
  7. Kostomarov, D.V., V.A.y. Fedorov, and E.V. Antonov, Mechanisms of Interaction of Molybdenum and Tungsten Polyoxide with Aluminum Oxide Melt under Reducing Conditions.Crystallography Reports, 2018. 63: p. 682-688.
  8. Kostomarov, D.V., V.A.y. Fedorov, and E.V. Antonov, Mechanisms of Interaction of Molybdenum and Tungsten Polyoxide with Aluminum Oxide Melt under Reducing Conditions.Crystallography Reports, 2018. 63: p. 682 – 688.
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Molybdenum Electrode Bars Applications

Molybdenum electrode bars are commonly used in various industrial applications, particularly in the field of high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Here are some common uses of molybdenum electrode bars:

1. Glass industry: Molybdenum electrode bars are used in the glass industry for the production of glass melting electrodes. These electrodes are typically employed in the manufacturing of fiberglass, container glass, and other types of specialty glass. Molybdenum‘s high melting point and excellent thermal and electrical conductivity make it suitable for this application.

2. Electric discharge machining (EDM): Molybdenum electrode bars are utilized as electrodes in EDM, a machining process that uses electrical discharges to shape or drill materials. Molybdenum electrodes offer high resistance to heat and wear, making them effective for EDM applications that involve hard materials or require intricate and precise machining.

3. Furnace heating elements: Molybdenum electrode bars find application in high-temperature furnaces as heating elements. These electrodes can withstand extremely high temperatures and maintain their structural integrity, making them ideal for use in vacuum or controlled-atmosphere furnaces, sintering processes, and other heat-treating applications.

4. Resistance welding: Molybdenum electrodes are employed in resistance welding, where they serve as contact tips or facing materials. Resistance welding is commonly used in automotive and aerospace industries for joining metal components. Molybdenum electrodes, due to their high electrical conductivity and resistance to heat and deformation, provide reliable and long-lasting contact points.

5. Ion implantation: Molybdenum electrode bars are used in ion implantation systems, a process employed in semiconductor manufacturing. Ion implantation involves bombarding a material with high-energy ions to alter its electrical properties. Molybdenum electrodes are used as the cathodes or anodes in these systems, providing a stable electrical connection and resistance to heat and corrosion.

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What is Wrought Molybdenum Metal Bar?

Wrought molybdenum metal bar refers to a solid, cylindrical form of molybdenum that has been processed through a shaping and deformation process known as wrought fabrication. Molybdenum (symbol Mo) is a refractory metal with a high melting point and excellent mechanical and thermal properties. It is commonly used in various industries, including aerospace, defense, electronics, and energy.

Wrought fabrication involves subjecting molybdenum to high temperatures and mechanical deformation, such as rolling, forging, or extrusion, to shape it into a bar form. This process enhances the material’s mechanical strength, ductility, and uniformity. The resulting molybdenum bar exhibits improved grain structure and enhanced properties compared to cast molybdenum.

Molybdenum bars are available in different sizes and grades to meet specific application requirements. They can be further processed into various components, such as sheets, plates, rods, wires, and other forms. These bars are often utilized in applications where high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and excellent thermal conductivity are crucial, such as in furnace components, electrical contacts, rocket nozzles, and high-temperature heating elements.

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Vanadium Pentoxide Catalyst

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a commonly used catalyst in various chemical reactions. It has a yellow-orange appearance and is known for its high catalytic activity and stability. Here are some important points to know about the vanadium pentoxide catalyst:

1. Oxidation reactions: Vanadium pentoxide is widely used as a catalyst in oxidation reactions. It can facilitate the conversion of various organic compounds into their corresponding oxidized products. For example, it is employed in the production of sulfuric acid, where it catalyzes the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfur trioxide (SO3).

2. Contact process: In the contact process for sulfuric acid production, vanadium pentoxide is a crucial catalyst. It is used in the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide, which is later used to produce sulfuric acid. The vanadium pentoxide catalyst operates at elevated temperatures and optimizes the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide.

3. Selective oxidation reactions: Vanadium pentoxide catalysts are also employed in selective oxidation reactions. They can selectively convert specific reactants into desired products while minimizing unwanted side reactions. One example is the selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones.

4. Ammoxidation reactions: Vanadium pentoxide catalysts are used in ammoxidation processes, where ammonia is converted into various nitrogen-containing compounds. This includes the production of adiponitrile, a precursor for nylon-6,6, through the ammoxidation of 1,3-butadiene.

5. Other applications: Vanadium pentoxide finds applications in other processes as well. It is used in the synthesis of phthalic anhydride, which is a precursor for plasticizers and resins. It can also be employed in the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the removal of organic sulfur compounds from petroleum products.

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Sodium Molybdate in Agriculture

Sodium molybdate is commonly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, particularly for crops that require molybdenum as a micronutrient. Molybdenum is an essential element for plants, although it is needed in small quantities. Sodium molybdate is a convenient source of molybdenum that can be easily absorbed by plants.

Here are some applications of sodium molybdate in crops:

1. Molybdenum Deficiency Correction: Some soils may be deficient in molybdenum, leading to poor crop growth and reduced yield. Adding sodium molybdate to the soil or applying it as a foliar spray can help correct molybdenum deficiencies and promote healthy plant growth.

2. Nitrogen Fixation: Molybdenum plays a vital role in the nitrogen-fixing process carried out by leguminous plants, such as soybeans, peas, and clover. It helps the plant convert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into a usable form that enriches the soil. Sodium molybdate can be applied to these crops to enhance nitrogen fixation and improve overall plant health.

3. Enzyme Activation: Molybdenum is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in plant metabolic processes, including nitrogen metabolism and sulfur assimilation. Sodium molybdate supplementation can ensure proper enzyme activation, leading to improved nutrient utilization, better protein synthesis, and enhanced overall plant growth and development.

4. Crop Quality Improvement: Molybdenum influences the quality of certain crops, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cauliflower, broccoli), by affecting their sulfur metabolism. Adequate molybdenum levels achieved through sodium molybdate application can enhance the flavor, aroma, and nutritional value of these crops.

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China Potassium Metavanadate

Potassium metavanadate, also known as potassium vanadate(V), is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KVO3. It is a yellow to yellow-orange powder that is sparingly soluble in water. Potassium metavanadate is a vanadium(V) compound and contains vanadium in its highest oxidation state.

China is one of the major producers and exporters of potassium metavanadate. It is primarily used in various industrial applications, including:

1. Catalysts: Potassium metavanadate is used as a catalyst in the production of sulfuric acid and other chemical reactions.

2. Pigments: It is employed in the manufacturing of yellow pigments for ceramics, glass, and coatings.

3. Metallurgy: Potassium metavanadate finds application in the production of steel and other alloys, where it acts as a deoxidizing agent and helps improve the strength and corrosion resistance of the metals.

4. Ceramics: It is used as an additive in ceramic glazes to impart color and improve the durability of the final product.

5. Electronics: Potassium metavanadate is utilized in the production of electronic components and devices, such as cathode ray tubes and semiconductors.

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