Sodium molybdate is synthesized by dissolving molybdenum oxide in sodium hydroxide. It is available in the capsule form, usually combined with other nutrients. Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral that is present in very small amounts in the body. It is involved in many important biological processes, possibly including development of the nervous system, waste processing in the kidneys, energy production in cells, and the chemical reactions that form bone, cartilage and blood. Molybdenum deficiencies are very rare among humans deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor causes severe disease in humans that usually results in premature death in early childhood, and it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Overdoses are extremely rare. Large amounts of molybdenum produce symptoms of copper deficiency in cattle, and taking too much supplemental molybdenum could produce the same symptoms in humans. Symptoms of excess molybdenum supplement include tiredness, dizziness, rashes, low white blood cell counts, depressed growth rate and anaemia. High molybdenum levels are also linked to gout. It is not carcinogenic or mutagenic. Inhalation of molybdenum dust can irritate the nose and throat and may cause coughing and wheezing.Prolonged exposure to high concentration of molybdenum will cause weakness, fatigue, headache, poor appetite, and muscle and joint pain. The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board established the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of molybdenum for most adults at 45 µg, with an RDA of 50 µg for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.